The sensor solutions can be classified into two main categories consisting of physical sensors and chemical sensors. Physical sensors derive a measurable parameter due to a physical displacement or a change in the physical characteristics of the sensor. These include photoelectric sensor and thermal sensors. Chemical sensors can be categorized as sensors that generate an electrical signal due to the chemical interaction with a biological component. For example Glucose sensors that are used to measure blood sugar levels from a correlation to interstitial fluids can be classified as chemical sensors.
Wearable sensors and remote monitoring systems have the potential to extend the reach of specialists in urban areas to rural areas and decrease these disparities. A conceptual representation of a system for remote monitoring is shown in Figure 1. Wearable sensors are used to gather physiological and movement data thus enabling patient’s status monitoring. Sensors are deployed according to the clinical application of interest. Sensors to monitor vital signs (e.g. heart rate and respiratory rate) would be deployed, for instance, when monitoring patients with congestive heart failure or patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing clinical intervention. Sensors for movement data capturing would be deployed, for instance, in applications such as monitoring the effectiveness of home-based rehabilitation interventions in stroke survivors or the use of mobility assistive devices in older adults.
GPS tracking system thus making it possible to locate patients in case of an emergency.
Respiratory rate vital signs (heart-rate, respiration and axillary temperature)
Sensors and motion detectors on doors that detect opening of, for instance, a medicine cabinet, refrigerator, or the home front door
Sensors systems with application in rehabilitation
Microsoft Kinect sensor
The Microsoft Kinect’s ability to track joint positions could prove useful as a tool for stroke rehabilitation, both in a clinical setting and as a tool to aid stroke survivors in their exercises at home. The Microsoft Kinect is a set of sensors developed as a peripheral device for use with the Xbox 360 gaming console. Using image, audio, and depth sensors it detects movements, identifies faces, and recognizes speech of players, allowing them to play games using only their own bodies as controls. Unlike previous attempts at gesture or movement-based controls, it does not require the player to wear any kind of accessory to enable the device to track the player’s movements. The depth, image, and audio sensors are housed in a horizontal bar attached to a base with a motorized pivot that allows it to adjust the sensor bar up and down (Figure 1). Together these parts make up the Kinect device. Within this broad topic the following specific questions were explored:
1. Is it possible to identify phases of movement from joint position data gathered during a therapy exercise?
Intel Real sense- under development
Wearable sensor Devices
Wearable sensors are often combined with ambient sensors when subjects are monitored in the home environment as schematically shown in Figure 5. The combination of wearable and ambient sensors is of great interest in several applications in the field of rehabilitation. For instance, when monitoring older adults while deploying interventions to improve balance control and reduce falls, one would be interested in using wearable sensors to track motion and vital signs. Specifically-designed data analysis procedures would then be used to detect falls via processing of motion and vital sign data. In this context, ambient sensors could be used in conjunction with wearable sensors to improve the accuracy of falls detection and,
GlobalhealthUSA continuous monitoring devices
Smart phones - Social Media and independent living
Analytics for independent living